Adverbial clause ทำหน้าที่เหมือน adverb ทั่วๆไปอาจจะเกิดต้นประโยค กลางประโยคหรือท้ายประโยคก็ได้
Types of adverbial clause
ประเภทของ Adverbial clause มีดังนี้
1. Clause of time คือ adverb clause ที่บอกเวลามี subordinators เช่น after,before,since,until
2. Clause of place คือ adverb clause ที่บอกสถานที่จะขึ้นต้น clause ด้วย where or wherever
3. Clause of contrast or Concessive คือ adverb clause ที่บอกความหมายตรงข้ามหรือความหมายที่ขัดแย้ง
จะขึ้นต้น clauseด้วย subordinators : although,even though,even if เป็นต้น
4. Clause of condition คือ adverb clause ที่บอกที่บอกเงื่อนไข subordinator ที่ใช้ขึ้นต้น clause คือ
if,as long as,if onlysupposing that,in even that เป็นต้น
5. Clause of clause คือ adverb ที่บอกสาเหตุ มี subordinator ดังนี้ because,since,as,now that เป็นต้น
6. Clause of result คือ adverb ที่บอกผล subordinator ได้แก่ so that
7. Clause of purpose คือ adverb clause ที่บอกจุดประสงค์ subordinator ได้แก่ so that,in order that
in the hope that for the purpose that เป็นต้น ใช้กับกริยาช่วย can,will,could,would,might ตัวใดตัวหนึ่ง
8. Clause of comparison คือ adverb clause ที่บอกเกี่ยวกับการเปรียบเทียบ
9. Clause of grammar คือ adverb clause ที่บอกลักษณะ subordinator ได้แก่ as though,as if เป็นต้น
Adverb Clauses with Time
• He was talking on the phone when I arrived.
• When she called, he had already eaten lunch.
• I washed the dishes when my daughter fell asleep.
• We'll go to lunch when you come to visit.
'When' means 'at that moment, at that time, etc.'. Notice the different tenses used in relationship to the clause beginning with when. It is important to remember that 'when' takes either the simple past OR the present - the dependent clause changes tense in relation to the 'when' clause.
• We will finish before he arrives.
• She (had) left before I telephoned.
'Before' means 'before that moment'. It is important to remember that 'before' takes either the simple past OR the present.
• We will finish after he comes.
• She ate after I (had) left.
'After' means 'after that moment'. It is important to remember that 'after' takes the present for future events and the past OR past perfect for past events.
• She began cooking while I was finishing my homework.
• As I was finishing my homework, she began cooking.
'While' and 'as' mean 'during that time'. 'While' and 'as' are both usually used with the past continuous because the meaning of 'during that time' which indicates an action in progess.
By the time
• By the time he finished, I had cooked dinner.
• We will have finished our homework by the time they arrive.
'By the time' expresses the idea that one event has been completed before another. It is important to notice the use of the past perfect for past events and future perfect for future events in the main clause. This is because of the idea of something happening up to another point in time.
• We waited until he finished his homework.
• I'll wait till you finish.
'Until' and 'till' express 'up to that time'. We use either the simple present or simple past with 'until' and 'till'. 'Till' is usually only used in spoken English.
• I have played tennis since I was a young boy.
• They have worked here since 1987.
'Since' means 'from that time'. We use the present perfect (continuous) with 'since'. 'Since' can also be used with a specific point in time.
As soon as
• He will let us know as soon as he decides (or as soon as he has decided).
• As soon as I hear from Tom, I will give you a telephone call.
'As soon as' means 'when something happens - immediately afterwards'. 'As soon as' is very similar to 'when' it emphasizes that the event will occur immediately after the other. We usually use the simple present for future events, although present perfect can also be used.
Whenever, every time
• Whenever he comes, we go to have lunch at "Dick's".
• We take a hike every time he visits.
'Whenever' and 'every time' mean 'each time something happens'. We use the simple present (or the simple past in the past) because 'whenever' and 'every time' express habitual action.
The first, second, third, fourth etc., next, last time
• The first time I went to New York, I was intimidated by the city.
• I saw Jack the last time I went to San Francisco.
• The second time I played tennis, I began to have fun.
The first, second, third, fourth etc., next, last time means 'that specific time'. We can use these forms to be more specific about which time of a number of times something happened.